Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 (Friday, twentieth Dhu al-Hijjah, 1163 AH) at Devanahalli,right now Bangalore Rural district, around 33 km north of Bangalore city.Tipu’s father, Hyder Ali, was a military man later became ruler of Mysore in 1761, while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the legislative head of the fort of Kadapa. British called him the Tiger of Mysore or Tippoo Sahib, was the Indian ruler who hostiled the East India Company’s victory of southern India.Being the eldest son of Haider Ali, Tipu sultan persuade after his father who was the ruler of independent state of Mysore in India.
From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of significant strategic and military missions. He was his father’s right arm in the wars from which Hyder rose as the most powerful leader of southern India.. He was brave and very much trained in military skills since his child hood; he assisted his father in several fights. Tipu was exceptionally shrewd and intellectual person got passion for books and had almost 2000 books in his own library.
Early military service
Being illiterate, Hyder was very specific in giving his eldest son a sovereign’s education and an early introduction to military and political affairs.
Hyder Ali arrangedcapable teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Persian, Kannada,Arabic,Quran, Islamic statute, riding, shooting and fencing.Tipu Sultan was instructed in military strategies by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he went with his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766. He commanded a corps of rangers in the capturing of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16.
Second Anglo-Mysore War
In 1779, the British seizedthe French-controlled port of Mahe. In response, Hyder launched the capturing of the Carnatic, with the aim of moving the British out of Madras.In September 1780during this campaign, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie. In the war of Pollilur, Tipu definitive defeated Baillie.About 200 were captured alive out of 360 Europeans and 3800 sepoys, suffered very high casualties.
Conflicts with Maratha confederation
Second Anglo-Mysore war ended with Tipu as a victor which made Marathas jealous and they made union with Nizam. The Maratha Empire, under its new Peshwa Madhavrao I,recaptured the vast majority of Indian subcontinent, twice beating Tipu’s father.In 1767 Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao vanquished both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and entered Srirangapatna, the capital of Mysore.
Hyder Ali accepted the authority of Madhavrao, however Tipu Sultan wanted to escape from the settlement of Marathas. Tipu also stopped the tribute to Marathas which was guaranteed by Hyder Ali.This got Tipu direct clash with the Marathas, prompting Maratha–Mysore War.
Conflict finished with the settlement of Gajendragad in March 1787, according to which Tipu returned all the territory caughtby Hyder Ali and agreed to pay four year arrears of tribute which Hyder Ali had agreed to pay to Maratha Empire. The Marathas consented to address Tipu sultan as “Nabob Tipu Sultan Futteh Ally Khan”.
Third Anglo-Mysore war
Third Anglo-Mysore war began in 1790 in which British made an alliance with Marathas and Nizam,Lord Cornwallis activatedEast India Company and British military forces, and formed partnerships with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad to against Tipu. Thiscollusion defeated Tipu at his capital Seringapatam.
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War & Death
Fourth Anglo-Mysore war was the end of Tipu Sultan’s rule, this fight began when Tipu Sultan again took help from the French and gazed to strengthen his forces which were considered as infringement of agreement and made British attack Mysore in 1798.
Horatio Nelson crushed François-Paul Brueys D’Aigalliers at the Battle of the Nile in Egypt in 1798. They assaulted the capital Srirangapatna in the Fourth Mysore War. There were in excess of 26,000 soldiers of the British East India Company, roughly 4,000 Europeans and the rest Indians. Tipu Sultan had only around 30,000. The British got through the city dividers, and French military consultants disclosed to Tipu Sultan to escape by means of mystery sections, but he refused.
Due to bad form of his officials and inaccessibility of proper French support dispensed obliterating defeat upon Tipu and his forces. He died martyred while battling in May 1799 in the gateway of Seringapatam.He was buried the following evening at the Gumaz, beside the grave of his father. He was given proper burial ceremony by the company officials.
Tipu used to state it was smarter to live for two days like a tiger than haul out a presence like a sheep for two hundred years. His first class troops wore tiger badges, the handle of his sword was as a growling tiger, and his favorite toy was a mechanical tiger.